Just Keep Swimming

Where you see, I observe


Reblogged from spaceplasma

spaceplasma:

Tokamaks: the future of fusion energy

Fusion is the energy that powers our Sun and other stars.  It has been a goal of scientists around the world to harness this process by which the stars “burn” hydrogen into helium (i.e. nuclear fusion) for energy production on Earth since it was discovered in the 1940′s.

Nuclear fusion is the process by which light nuclei fuse together to create a single, heavier nucleus and release energy.  Given the correct conditions (such as those found in plasma), nuclei of light elements can smash into each other with enough energy to undergo fusion. The “easiest” (most energetically favorable) fusion reaction occurs between the hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium.  When the nucleus of a deuterium atom crashes into the nucleus of a tritium atom with sufficient energy, a fusion reaction occurs and a huge amount of energy is released, 17.6 million electron volts to be exact. 

Why fusion? To put this in terms of energy that we all experience; fusion generates more energy per reaction than any other energy source.  A single gram of deuterium/tritium fusion fuel can generate 350 million kJ of energy, nearly 10 million times more energy than from the same amount of fossil fuel!

Fusion power has the potential to provide sufficient energy to satisfy mounting demand, and to do so sustainably, with a relatively small impact on the environment. Nuclear fusion has many potential attractions. Firstly, its hydrogen isotope fuels are relatively abundant – one of the necessary isotopes, deuterium, can be extracted from seawater, while the other fuel, tritium, would be bred from a lithium blanket using neutrons produced in the fusion reaction itself. Furthermore, a fusion reactor would produce virtually no CO2 or atmospheric pollutants, and its other radioactive waste products would be very short-lived compared to those produced by conventional nuclear reactors.

Fusion reactions require so much energy that they must occur with the hydrogen isotopes in this plasma state. Plasma makes up all of the stars, and is the most common form of matter in the visible universe. Since plasmas are made of charged particles every particle can interact with every other particle, even over very long distances. The fact that 99% of the universe is made of plasmas makes studying them very important if we are to understand how the universe works.

How do we create fusion in a laboratory? This is where tokamaks come in. In order for nuclear fusion to occur, the nuclei inside of the plasma must first be extremely hot, like in a star. Unfortunately, no material on Earth can withstand these temperatures so in order to contain a plasma with such high temperatures, we have to be creative. One clever solution is to create a magnetic “bottle” using large magnet coils to capture the plasma and suspend it away from the container’s surfaces. The plasma follows along the magnetic field, suspended away from the walls. This complex combination of magnets used to confine the plasma and the chamber where the plasma is held is known as a tokamak. Tokamaks have a toroidal shape (i.e. they are shaped like a donut) so they have no open ends for plasma to escape. Tokamaks, like the ASDEX Upgrade (pictured above), create and contain the hottest materials in the solar system. The aim of ASDEX Upgrade, the “Axially Symmetric Divertor Experiment”, is to prepare the physics base for ITER.

ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and Latin for “the way” or “the road”) is an international nuclear fusion research and engineering project, which is currently building the world’s largest experimental tokamak nuclear fusion reactor. The ITER project aims to make the long-awaited transition from experimental studies of plasma physics to full-scale electricity-producing fusion power plants.

Further readings:

(via we-are-star-stuff)

Reblogged from whatshouldwecallme
Reblogged from methoticalmemento

d0wlingcollege:

Steve Harvey is absolutely done with everyones shit.

(Source: methoticalmemento, via wateryadoing)

Reblogged from pankoro
pankoro:

 なんかうちのハムスターが三段腹でせつない表情してるんですけど。

pankoro:

 なんかうちのハムスターが三段腹でせつない表情してるんですけど。

(via we-are-star-stuff)

Reblogged from birbrightsactivist
  • 15-year-old me: MOM I'm practically an ADULT ugggh you never let me do ANYTHING in olden times i could get MARRIED *eye roll into another dimension*
  • me now: for my birthday i want food and to stay on your health insurance
Reblogged from whatshouldwecallme
Reblogged from thegirlwithgoldeyes

thegirlwithgoldeyes:

imagine a vampire going “fuck it” and just taking some antihistamines before going to town on a plate of garlic bread

later on it’s wheeled into the ER with like a puffed up face and it just goes “I have been on this earth 10 thousand years but i have not lived until this day”

(via rharrison545)

Reblogged from a-stark-in-bag-end

rharrison545:

a-stark-in-bag-end:

a-stark-in-bag-end:

All those people who told me my dagger was a stupid, impractical waste of my money can go suck it

I saw this picture and almost had a heart attack because it looks like the scorpion I killed earlier today and I’m so paranoid about there being another one, and then I realized

Dear God Karen you kill me a-stark-in-bag-end
Reblogged from the-keepers-of-the-keys
the-book-ferret:

the-keepers-of-the-keys:

this is the best gif EVER

OMG

the-book-ferret:

the-keepers-of-the-keys:

this is the best gif EVER

OMG

(via rharrison545)

Reblogged from thecraftychemist

thecraftychemist:

Top: Long wave UV illumination. Bottom: Ambient illumination.
Solutions are in order of increasing particle size (longer growth time).

Bottom: Samsung flexible screen mobile phone flexibility test - GIF video source

Quantum dots - now in your phone

2013 was a big year for quantum dots with the first consumer products released using them in screens including some models of Sony Bravia TVs, and the Amazon Kindle Fire HDX 7. Mobile phones including the iPhone 6 are expected to include them in 2014. This is partly because of their improved energy efficiency, but also because they have the ability to be used in flexible and/or curved screens:

Curved (concave) screens are a major and very important new display technology innovation because they substantially improve display performance by significantly reducing and sometimes eliminating reflections from ambient light sources that washout the on-screen images. That also allows the displays to run at lower brightness, which increases the power efficiency and battery running time for mobile devices.

Source

But what are quantum dots?

Simplifying things greatly, quantum dots are incredibly small particles. They range between 2 to 10 nanometers in diameter, which is equivalent to 50 atoms. The colour light that a quantum dot emits is directly related to its size; smaller dots appear blue, larger ones more red. In LCD screens they’re applied as a way of eliminating the need for White LED backlights and colour filters. As Dr. Raymond M. Soneira, President of DisplayMate explains; “Instead of using existing White LEDs (which have yellow phosphors) that produce a broad light spectrum that makes it hard to efficiently produce saturated colors, Quantum Dots directly convert the light from Blue LEDs into highly saturated narrow band primary colors for LCDs.”

Not only do they have great energy efficiency as colour screens, but they also have applications in solar cells capturing photons and releasing current.

(Source: education.mrsec.wisc.edu, via we-are-star-stuff)